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Citation: Citation Styles

All scholarly research is built upon knowledge of the past literature in a field. This guide will help you learn how to cite your work, citation styles, citation tools, and useful applications for citation

Citation styles application

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Citation styles

Citation styles

There are three major citation styles:

  • Chicago used for many fields
  • MLA used for humanities
  • APA used for social sciences, education, engineering, and business.

Other sciences developed their own styles:

  • CSE for the biological sciences
  • AMA for the biomedical sciences, medicine, and nursing
  • ACS for chemistry
  • AIP for physics, plus other styles for astrophysics and astronomy
  • AMS for mathematics and computer sciences


Citation Styles PDF

APA citation style pdf

MLA citation style pdf

Chicago citation style pdf

IEEE citation style pdf

Citation Machine: is a tool to help create fast and easy citations for the most popular styles APA, MLA, Chicago, IEEE, and many more. It is also a plagiarism detection tool, and a tool for finding and fixing grammar errors.

What style should I use?

These styles are international standards and have style manuals to refer to for further examples.

Author-date referencing styles

APA Psychology, Nursing, Education, Tourism
Chicago Foundation Units, Multidisciplinary
MLA English

Harvard no longer produces a citation guide; please use the Chicago Style Manual.

Notational referencing styles

ACS Chemistry
Footnote Social Sciences, Humanities
IEEE Engineering, Electronics, IT, Computer Science
Legal Law
Vancouver Biomedicine, Health Sciences